Image and Video

Roland Barthes - about the Photography said, images, the meaning is already completed, it potulates  a kind of knowledge, a past, a memory, a comparative order of facts, ideas, decisions. However, when it meets foam, richness is almost lost. This is the time when Myth infiltrates into the gap between the image and the meaning. Jacques Ranciere said the cinematic images are nothing more than composition, operation game, relations between the sayable and the visible. ways of playing with the before and the after, cause and effect.

Both authors suggest 'Studium' and 'indexical sign' - and also William and Pierce, main 'reading' of the image comes from the cultural knowledge. Therefore, it shifts from one to the other.

Stream or blood vessel

The first step is information marked on the surface (perhaps it can be said as another dissociation of the stream). There is no embodied addressee for the context, but a transport of meaning. First of all, the disqualification of the text should be the first step for analysis this process of Context. The text is one of tool to constitute anchored images within human culture. It gives carriers, transmits and passages something that a determined content, an identifiable code, a describable value and carries the signified content. (Condillac, 2001) Discriminable and iterability features in principle a general agreement constitute the functional and iterable written language form. These defined contours shift and modified the present to past present. However, this past present cannot be the representation of the whole body. It snaps the moment when present flowing on one of the Context stream. 

 
 

Uses of Signature on different point

Van Eyck's Signature

Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455)
Painting: Gates of Paradise - east baptistery doors (1425-52) Florence


Ghiberti’s east baptistery doors contain one of the first self portraits of an artist which acted as a signature to the work.  In 1401 Ghiberti won a competition to design a set of bronze baptistery for the east front. However, these doors have now been relocated to the north in order to make way for his later doors the, Gates of Paradise, 1425-52. The Gates of Paradise are divided into ten panels depicting scenes from the Old Testament.

Ghiberti employed the recently discovered principles of perspective to give depth to his compositions. The panels are surrounded by a richly decorated gilt framework which contain statuettes and busts of prophets. The central busts are portraits of the artist and his father, Bartolomeo Ghiberti.
 

Jan Van Eyck (1390-1441)
Painting: The Arnolfini Wedding (1434
)

The Arnolfini Wedding is believed to be a portrait documenting the wedding of Giovanni Arnolfini, an Italian cloth merchant, and his wife. This painting is embedded in rich iconography* and art historians have debated is meaning for many years.

In the centre of the painting a couple stand in their finery with their hands held. In the background there is a convex mirror, which reflects the artist as he stands in front of them, outside of the picture plane. Above this mirror Van Eyck has signed his name, Johannes de eyck fuit hic 1434 (Jan van Eyck was here 1434). Northern European artists were signing their works from a much earlier date than those in the southern Europe.

http://www.askaboutireland.ie/reading-room/arts-literature/art-artists/self-portraiture/self-portrait-as-signatur/


US Declaration of Independence Document and John Hancock

US Declaration of Independence Document and John Hancock

US Declaration of Independence Document and John Hancock


Shakespeare Sigs Collected

Shakespeare Sigs Collected

Shakespeare Sigs Collected


Illiterate Signature


On the left is the real deal, on the right is the autopen signature. 

 

Obama used Ghostwriter called an "Autopen" for signing Congress' fiscal cliff deal into law in the third time. First was in May of 2011, when he became the first president to do so by signing a Patriot Act extension from a G8 summit in France, the second was in November of 2011 from Indonesia. 

This uses of autopen brought constitutional criticism. However, the Justice Department wrote a 29-page opinion in 2005 during George W. Bush's presidency that found ". . .the President need not personally perform the physical act of affixing his signature to a bill he approves and decides to sign in order for the bill to become law. Rather, the President may sign a bill within the meaning of Article I, Section 7 by directing a subordinate to affix the President's signature to such a bill, for example by autopen."



Ian Burn (b. 1939) and Mel Ramsden (b. 1944) 'The Role of Language' The essay was written in 1969. First published (  as   September 1968)in G. de Vries (ed.), Uber Kunst/On Art, Cologne, 1974, pp. 90-4, from which the present text is taken.

Ian Burn (b. 1939) and Mel Ramsden (b. 1944) 'The Role of Language' The essay was written in 1969. First published (as September 1968)in G. de Vries (ed.), Uber Kunst/On Art, Cologne, 1974, pp. 90-4, from which the present text is taken.

In terms of intention, if one is dealing with an object then one is more strongly committed to one's attitude of seeing (language) in this particular case than to any physical attributes. If one can conceptually distinguish that 'language' as a 'thing-in-itself', one might very well claim certain rights to it, e.g . to 'put a signature on it', rather than to any physical manifestation. The object then can be as ordinary or common or accessible as one chooses ... since that is not what one is directly committed to - one is not committed to a particular object but only to the fact of an object being there in order that one can have an attitude about it, i.e., a particular language of seeing. One's commitment then can lie in the direction of the language.
It becomes crucial to realise the significance of the ties between the language we use and what (and how) we see.

The Crisis of Artistic Authorship (1981)

Greenberg's writing is often cited as the apodictic core of modernist criticism: but it is far from coherent. Rather, it marks a point of diffraction, of incoherence in that discourse. His particular attention to the materiality of the object allowed a divergence from the ontological norm which was furthered by developments of art practice and which, consequently, required a restatement of modernism's central themes at a moment when the vacuity of that project was keenly perceived in contrast to the aims and intentions of some of the artists to whom he referred.

***

...Greenberg's attempt to establish the objective purposiveness of the art object, to define its particular forms of adaption to definite ends in terms of material substrate, is continually undermined by the exigencies of a subjective judgment of taste. And here an altogether different order of purpose emerges.

The only necessary condition for judging good art is common sense; but for producing good art, genius is required. With reference to Kant's Critique, genius is the mental disposition (ingenium) through which nature gives the rule to art. No definite rule can be given for the products of genius, hence originality is its first property. At this point the modernist discourse emerges as the site of an insistent contradiction which is indicated in Greenberg's criticism and repeated in the opposing strategies of the institutions of education on the one hand and those of entertainment and art patronage on the other. The former exacts a formal field of knowledge about art, an empirical domain of teachable crafts, while the latter requires a transcendental field of aesthetic experience and reflection founded on the unteachable tenets of genius and originality. During the 1960s artistic practices attempted to repudiate the notions of genius, originality, and taste, by introducing material processes, series, systems, and ideas in place of an art based on self-expression. [ .. . ]

The only necessary condition for judging good art is common sense; but for producing good art, genius is required. With reference to Kant's Critique, genius is the mental disposition ( ingenium) through which nature gives the rule to art. No definite rule can be given for the products of genius, hence originality is its first property. At this point the modernist discourse emerges as the site of an insistent contradiction which is indicated in Greenberg's criticism and repeated in the opposing strategies of the institutions of education on the one hand and those of entertainment and art patronage on the other. The former exacts a formal field of knowledge about art, an empirical domain of teachable crafts, while the latter requires a transcendental field of aesthetic experience and reflection founded on the unteachable tenets of genius and originality. During the 1960s artistic practices attempted to repudiate the notions of genius, originality, and taste, by introducing material processes, series, systems, and ideas in place of an art based on self-expression. [ .. . ]

***

lff lff lff [ ... ] What is made more explicit, more transparent by the so-called 'dematerialization' of the object, is that the production of authenticity requires more than an author for the object; it exacts the 'truth' of the authorial discourse. By putting himself in circulation, the performance artist parodied the commercial exchange and distribution of an artistic personality in the form of a commodity. Nevertheless, for criticism, performance art initiated an appropriate synthesis of the disparate elements that had fractured the modernist discourse. On the one hand it provided the empirical domain with a universal object - the body, and on the other, to the transcendental field, it brought the incontestable authenticity of the artist's experience of his own body.

With Lea Vergine's account of 'body art,' ... criticism seems to subside once again in the direction of ontology. She speaks of 'the individual obsessed by the obligation to exhibit himself in order to be'. But she is anxious to point 3 out that this move is more than a revival of expressionism. The use of the body in art is not simply a return to origins, 'the individual is led back to a specific mode of existence.' Moreover these activities, 'phenomena' as she puts it, also document a style of living that remains 'outside of art.' The critic finds in the analysis of the artist's actual experience, the third term which metaphorically grounds the experience of nature (the body) and art (the culture). [ . . . ]

 .. . the authenticity of body art cannot be inscribed at the level of a particular morphology, it must be chiselled into the world in accordance with direct experience. The discourse of the body in art is more than a repetition of the eschatological voices of abstract expressionism; the actual experience of the body fulfils the prophecy of the painted mark, It is also more than a confirmation of the positivist aspirations of the Art of the Real. The art of the 'real body' does not pertain to the truth of a visible form, but refers back to its essential content: the irreducible, irrefutable experience of pain. The body, as artistic text, bears the authenticating imprint of pain like a signature; Vergine insists, 'the experiences we are dealing with are authentic, and they are consequently cruel and painful. Those who are in pain will tell you that they have the right to be taken seriously.' ~ (It is no longer a question of good art, but of serious artists.) [ ... ]

... the specific contribution of feminists in the field of performance has been to pose the question of sexual difference across the discourse of the body in a way which focuses on the construction not of the individual but of the sexed subject. The body is not perceived as the repository of an artistic essence: it is seen as a kind of hermeneutic image. The so-called 'enigma of femininity' is formulated as the problem of representation (images of women, how to change them) and then resolved by the discovery of a true identity behind the patriarchal facade. This true identity is 'the essence in women' according to Ulrike Rosenbach, who defines feminist art as 'the elucidation of the woman-artist's identity; of her body, of her psyche, her feelings, her position in society.

Clearly the question of the body and the question of sexuality do not necessarily intersect. When they do, for instance in this particular discourse, the body is decentered and it is radically split; positioned; not simply my body, but his body, her body. Here, no third term emerges to salvage a transcendental sameness for aesthetic reflection. Within this system of representation, actual experience merely confirms an irrevocable difference in the field of the other.

Partially because of this intransigence, feminist art has been problematic for criticism; how does the critic authenticate the work of art when the author is sexed and 'his' truth no longer universal? Consequently, most of this work has been marginalized by or excluded from the so-called 'mainstream' even when the critic's concerns have included areas such as psychoanalysis ... Moreover [he predominant forms of feminist writing on art continue to counterpose a visible torrn to a hidden content; excavating a different, but similarly fundamental order of truth - the truth of the woman, her original feminine identity. But in practice what persistently emerges as a result of foregrounding the question of representation, particularly the image, is more in the order of an underlying contradiction than an essential content. The woman artist 'sees' her experience as a woman particularly in terms of the 'feminine position,' as object of the look, but she must also account for the 'feeling' she experiences as the artist, occupying the 'masculine position' as subject of the look. The former she defines as the socially prescribed position of the woman, one to be questioned, exorcised, or overthrown ... , while the implications of the latter (that there can be only one position with regard to active looking and that is masculine) cannot be acknowledged and is construed instead as a kind of psychic truth - a natural, instinctual, preexistent, and essential femininity. Frequently, in the process of its production, the feminist text repudiates its own essentialism and testifies instead to the insistent bisexuality of the drives. It would seem to be a relevant project for feminist criticism to take this further - to examine how that contradiction (the crisis of positionality) is articulated in particular practices and to what extent it demonstrates that masculine and feminine positions are never finally fixed - for the artist, her work, or her public. [ . .. ]

Following the paradoxical logic of modernism's demand for objective purposes as well as transcendental truths, avant-garde practices between 1965 and the mid-1970s initiated areas of work that divided the verv field of which they were an effect. The potential of that divergence has not "been completely realized. First, the materiality of the practice: initially defined in terms of the constraints of a particular medium, it must now be redefined as a specific production of meaning. Secondly, sociality, raised as the question of context, i.e. the gallery system (inside vs. outside), and the commodification of art (object vs. process, action, idea, etc.) . This must be reconsidered as the question of institutions, of the conditions which determine the reading of artistic texts and the strategies which would be appropriate for interventions (rather than 'alternatives') in that context. Thirdly, sexuality, posed as the problem of images of women and how to change them, must be reformulated as a concern with positionality, with the production of readers as well as authors for artistic texts and crucially, with the sexual overdetermination of meaning which takes place in that process.

The dominant critical practices of that same period have, however, so consistently converged on the traditional vanishing point of the artistic subject, self-possessed and essentially creative, that it is not surprising now to find a certain consolidation of that position in artistic practices themsel ves, in the return of painterly signifiers and their privileged site - the classical pictorial text. Finally, a further question is raised - why theoretical criticism, with a very different history from that discussed so far, was also unable to sustain the discontinuities in the modernist discourse and develop an accessible critique.

As Jean-Claude Lebenzstein suggests in his essay "Sketch of a Typology," the modernartist's signature typically "illustrate the fetish which museological culture makes of his name

 

Why do we Sign for? - NPR


Derrida, J., Amelunxen, H., Fort, J., Richter, G. and Wetzel, M. (2010). Copy, Archive, Signature : A Conversation on Photography. 1st ed. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

Harbison, C. (2012). Jan van Eyck: the play of realism. 1st ed. London: Reaktion.

Harrison, C. and Wood, P. (1999). Art in theory, 1900-1990. 1st ed. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Signature in Media Law

Copyright in signatures

An individual’s signature may be protected under copyright law as an artistic work. If so, the unauthorised reproduction of the signature will infringe copyright. The name itself will not be protected by copyright; it is the appearance of the signature which is protected.

It should be remembered that copyright only subsists in works which are the product of skill, judgment and labour. An everyday signature of a rudimentary nature is unlikely to satisfy these requirements. Similarly, if the name were written in a simple form, say, in block capitals, the reproduction would not infringe copyright. The more elaborate the signature, the more likely that it will be protected by copyright.

Copyright in a name

It is well established under copyright law that copyright does not exist in a name. For example, in the 1869 Privy Council case of Du Boulay v Du Boulay,11 the court observed that:

... in this country we do not recognise the absolute right of a person to a particular name to the extent of entitling him to prevent the assumption of that name by a stranger.

This is so whether the name in question is the name of a living individual or an invented word for a fictional character. The name of the fictional character ‘Kojak’12 has been refused copyright protection under English copyright law, as has the real life surname of Burberry.

Signatures

Signatures may be registrable as trade marks provided that they are sufficiently distinctive. If a distinctive signature is registered, it will usually be accompanied by a disclaimer stating that nothing in the registration will give exclusive rights in the actual words making up the name except if they are in substantially the script shown.

The owner of a trade mark has exclusive rights in the trade mark, which are infringed by the use of the trade mark without his consent. What amounts to use for the purposes of infringement?

The Trade Marks Act 1994 Act refers to use as being, in particular:

  • affixing the sign to goods or packaging;
  • offering goods for sale or offering or supplying services under the sign;
  • importing or exporting goods under the sign;
  • using the sign in business papers or advertising.

Those involved in the preparation of infringing material will be treated as infringers if they know or have reason to believe that the use of the mark is not authorised by the mark’s owner. Use has to be in the course of trade to constitute an infringement.

What amounts to infringement?

The following unauthorised acts amount to infringement:

  • use of a sign which is identical to the trade mark in relation to goods and services which are identical with those for which it is registered (s 10(1) of the Act);
  • use of a sign which is identical to the trade mark in relation to goods and services which are similar to those for which it is registered so that there is a likelihood of confusion or association on the part of the public (s 10(2) of the Act);
  • use of a sign which is similar to the trade mark in relation to goods and services which are identical to those for which it is registered so that there is a likelihood of confusion or association on the part of the public (s 10(2) of the Act);
  • use of a sign which is identical or similar to the trade mark in relation to goods or services which are not similar to the goods and services for which it is registered where the mark has a reputation in the UK and the use of the sign being without due cause takes unfair advantage of or is detrimental to the distinctive character or the repute of the trade mark (s 10(3) of the Act).

Section 11(2) of the Act provides that a registered trade mark is not infringed by:

... the use by a person of his own name or address provided the use is in accordance with honest practice in industrial or commercial matters.

So, even if a name is registered as a trade mark, anyone else sharing that name would not infringe the registered mark if they used their name in the course of trade, provided that they did so in an honest manner.

VAT

All moneys due under the terms of this Agreement are exclusive of any VAT due thereupon. The Publishers operate a self-billing system for the payment of royalties and to account for Value Added Tax. The Publishers, therefore, require details of the Author’s VAT registration number where applicable which shall be supplied upon signature of this Agreement. Should the Author fail to supply a VAT registration number, the Publishers shall not pay VAT on any sums due under the terms of this Agreement.

Copyright in signatures

An individual’s signature may be protected under copyright law as an artistic work. If so, the unauthorised reproduction of the signature will infringe copyright. The name itself will not be protected by copyright; it is the appearance of the signature which is protected.


Spilsbury, S. (2000). Media law. 1st ed. London: Cavendish Publishing.

Moment of holding the signifier to another signifier / Derrida

...For in general one conceives of the instant precisely as a pointe, as stigmê, as Punkt, and the punctuality of the point would be, first of all, indivisible. But in the situation that we are evoking, we have to do, paradoxically, with an experience of the singular, of the non-iterable, of the unique that would, however, be divisible enough for an archive to separate off from it somehow.
...
recording an image would become inseparable from producing an image and would therefore lose the ref- erence to an external and unique referent. (Derrida, 2010)
 

Referent of the moment, Signature preserves a referent as a reference. To understanding about the consciousness of the sign of the meaning, I often use photography as a metaphor. The moment when preserving the picture, reference became referent - now became present as a slide of the image. Now we can iterate the image of that point through freshly introduced referent. It preserved the present. Photocopied slices refer multiformity of the interpretations. It could be photocopied on same paper or wood or even on unfixable materials.

Is that means each photocopy has different Referent? It could be holding many references but, I believe, eventually, they are A picture.

What is the structure of the picture/painting ( or two objects would have different structure )

1. observer
2. Frame
3. moment of the capture
4. So on

Then, another question arises again. What is the moment between before taking and after taken? In Japanese, there is a word 'Aida 間, the moment’ in definition, this Chinese letter comes from the image of the sunshine between the gap of the door. Aida also means the relationship caused by the gap. However, this gap is not constituted by opposite position but the horizontal relationship/distance. Aida could use for the chronological gap. Aida is the relationship of the moment/existence.

 


Derrida, J., Amelunxen, H., Fort, J., Richter, G. and Wetzel, M. (2010). Copy, Archive, Signature : A Conversation on Photography. 1st ed. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

Clements, S. (2017). Shall I This Time Hold You?. [video] London: Barbican Foyer.

More idea about the Signature and Sotheby's Old Masters Auction

1. Signified of the Signature

signature |ˈsɪɡnətʃə| 
noun

1. a person's name written in a distinctive way as a form of identification in authorising a cheque or document or concluding a letter: the signature of a senior manager.

  •  [mass noun] the action of signing a document: the licence was sent to the customer for signature.
  •  a distinctive pattern, product, or characteristic by which someone or something can be identified: the chef produced the pâté that was his signature | [as modifier]:  his signature dish.

mid 16th century (as a Scots legal term, denoting a document presented by a writer to the Signet): from medieval Latin signatura ‘sign manual’ (in late Latin denoting a marking on sheep), from Latin signare ‘to sign, mark’.

Chambers, E. (1728). Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. 1st ed. London: [Printed for James and John Knapton, John Darby, Daniel Midwinter, Arthur Bettesworth, John Senex [and 13 others in London].

Walter, H. (1830). A History of England: Extending from the signature of Magna Charta to the death of Edward IV. 1st ed. London, p.331.

Diagram

 First of all, I started with three functions of Signature, Identification, Authorship, and Devotion followed historical uses of Signature at Greece. However, as I found and started an idea, which is signature during the Industrial Revolution era's ( roughly 19 century ) painting's Signature changed its function dramatically, but still I need some evidence to defend my position.

 Nevertheless, it was clear that identification feature on the painting had slowly dimmed and moved out to Authorship. The Signified Signature itself became an image/sign. Through the evidence on between late 18 century and start 19 century, Signature became the name for whom creator rather than owner. It was once identification of the proprietor and shifted Authorship of the artist. It also can be said that it was the purpose of the document, and became to sign of the origin. 

 Secondly, one question raised in my mind. Why has it happened? What is this shifting meaning? No doubt 19 century's Industry Revolution impact the culture of consumption. Bourgeois's consuming pattern changed the whole form of cultural consumption. Like it or not, the Art is closely related to consumers. Only one thing which didn't change is the goal of purchase, to satisfy emotionally.

? Questions ?

 Then, what is the role of the artist? Formerly, their name was hiding behind the style of painting. Their representation was the style of artwork. And now, their name became the value through the signature. The signature is now a representation of worth, not of an artist, but the signified. 

 

2. Picture Frame/The place of the Signifier.

 I found at the gallery which has a denoted name owner in the painting and on the frame. So, I tried another point of view which is the Place of the signature at the Auction.

3. Price tag

"One Price And Goods Returnable"

In the classical form we know and love today, the first "Fixed Price" retail Price Tag appeared in 1861 at Oak Hall, at Sixth and Market Streets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  This was the invention of John Wanamaker

The invention Of Retail Fixed Pricing System

John Wanamaker was far ahead of his time, prior to his "One Price And Goods Returnable" concept, the haggling system was at play at most retail establishments.  One could argue that the Sumerian culture established some of the concepts of Fixed Pricing along with perhaps Bennetts Of Irongate in Derby, United Kingdom, however these are not the systemwide retail Fixed Pricing systems and Tags we know in a modern context. 

John Wanamaker created a number of Price Tags that were very prominently displayed on the products along with the very first retail Point Of Sale displays promoting the products and the value of the price. 

The Fixed Retail pricing system invented by Wanamaker was actually based on a philosophical construct, even a perhaps a religious construct.  As a devout Christian, Wanamaker believed "if everyone was equal before God, then everyone should be equal before price".  The concept was very well received by a vast majority of consumers as haggling for your goods is a tiering process.  Even in this epoch, there were a number of observers that applied rudimentary forms of game theory to the problem and concluded that Wanamaker's price theory was more then sound and actually caused lower uniform prices. 

The Birth And Death Of The Price Taghttp://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=415287577

Isn't it looks so similar each other? Of course. "The frame" starts from artwork and then photo frame, still the figure of the frames are related each other. is it that they are relative?

HOCKNEY, D. (2017). DAVID HOCKNEY. London: TATE BRITAIN

The recording of though at David Hockney exhibition at Tate Britain 29/04/17

David and David and observatory

David and David

David and David

  • Maybe signature does not be used because text changes function from documentary to sign.  When?
  • Now signature exist outside of the frame? Is it themselves disclaim Authorship?
  • Very thin frames don't tuck in painting inside.
  • Painting itself as an object preserved.
  • The artwork itself doesn't mean artist before - before when? - but dedication. Therefore, maybe, they needed their names for. The artwork is granted as "Artwork" so itself becomes "Art". How about "Design"
  • Preserved in the acrylic box. 
  • 1967 A lawn Being Sprinkled - No Frames, Red line inside the painting became Frame
  • 1967 A bigger splash - No frame drawing but splashed blue dots in the white part in outside of the corner
  • 1966 - Frames
  • 1972 Portrait of an Artist - Pool became a Frame and David Hockney himself became an observer inside of the painting
  • 1977 - The photo frame or mirror frame without image inside of the artwork makes/endows Hockney's Parents Reality/real
  • Most of the illustrations have names and dates.
  • Only "To" but no "From"
  • 1983 - The scramble game - escape time from the frame. or using the time escape from the frame. Or Movement? or the Flowing?
  • 1982- Gregory Swimming - I love it!  his pool is alive!
 

If TEXT is the object and snapshots or Photograph is the action of taking the images through the machine. What if I taking it from the handwriting and make it through the camera and digitalise?

Machine trying to understand human

HOCKNEY, D. (2017). DAVID HOCKNEY. London: TATE BRITAIN.

Signature in Art 18th and 19th century

TATE BRITAIN, london

Why have the increasing number of 19th centuries paintings signature?

 Maybe, because signature was documenting function once, and it became a sign slowly

 Is there a possibility the Industrial Revolution affected on the idea about the painting? Or the change of the bourgeois' propensity to consume in the 19th century. or both.

Countermarch

countermarch 01

 

countermarch 02

Price_signature

Researching about the Signatures and Monograms

 Many painters are signing their monograms or names on painting. What is it representing? Simply it can be mean that they are proving the artwork value with their name.

Pablo Picasso

David hockney

HOCKNEY, David _ Artist's signatures and monograms, biographies and prices by Art Signature Dictionary.jpg

 

EUTHYKARTIDE ̄SMANETHEKEHONAHSIOSPOIESAS
Euthykartides the Naxian dedicated me, having made [me]

 The only things we know about Euthykartides are what the toes, the base, and its inscription – probably the earliest Greek sculptor’s signature, certainly the earliest complete one – tell us. The man was from Naxos; he dedicated (the word is anetheke∗) a statue that he carved in a sanctuary that (largely because of Naxian investment) was fast becoming one of the most important in Greece.

 What is the meaning of signature? The earliest Greek signature was not on present evidence an “individual artistic genius” who used his sculptures self-consciously to “express himself” or his “inner vision” or his “originality.” And his statue was probably completely conventional, even if the convention itself was in its infancy: (1)

 The first signature could for the dedication his name to the god or promoting his name to buyers, or even he was proud of his skill. However, regardless of his purpose, his name replaced himself to the carved another sculpture figure. Follow the passed time, we cannot guess who it is - at least we know he is from Naxos - cannot guess how he looked like, but the image of carved shadow replaced his own image as Euthykartides.

 

Screen Shot 2017-04-24 at 22.47.42.png

(1) Hurwit, J. (n.d.). Artists and signatures in ancient Greece. 1st ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.